APPENDIX A.

DEPOSITIONS.

the following passage relating to this Appendix is taken from page 4 of the report:—

    "Many [witnesses] hesitated to speak lest what they said, if it should ever be published, might involve their friends or relatives at home in danger, and it was found necessary to give an absolute promise that names should not be disclosed.
    For this reason names have been omitted.*
    In all cases [the depositions] are given as nearly as possible (for abbreviation was sometimes inevitable) in the exact words of the witness, and wherever a statement has been made by a witness tending to exculpate the German troops, it has been given in full. Excisions have been made only where it has been felt necessary to conceal the identity of the deponent or to omit what are merely hearsay statements, or are palpably irrelevant. In every case the name and description of the witnesses are given in the original depositions and in copies which have been furnished to us by H.M. Government. The originals remain in the custody of the Home Department, where they will be available in case of need, for reference after the conclusion of the war."
     Names of places are given throughout in the French form.
     The status of the witness is printed in each case at the head of the deposition. The nationality of all the witnesses is Belgian unless the contrary is indicated.
    The depositions are grouped together, each group being distinguished by a letter. They are arranged, as far as possible, in the order in which they appear in the Report, viz.:—

a = Liège and District.

b = The Valleys of the Meuse and Sambre.

c & d = The Aerschot, Malines, Vilvorde, Louvain Quadrangle.

e = Louvain.

f = Termonde and Alost.

g = The use of civilians as a screen.

h = Offences against combatants.

k = Miscellaneous statements relating to Belgium.

l = France.

* For greater security the initials of persons mentioned in the depositions have been changed.
 

Liège AND DISTRICT.
pic1    pic2    pic3    pic4
   
belgian refugee.

    On the 4th August the Germans came to Aubel. I was requisitioned by the burgomaster of the commune for trench-digging and tree-cutting on the Hombourg Road. A picket of German cavalry came up to where we were, that is to say, up to 100 yards from us. We were warned of their arrival by a road-mender, and escaped. I went to my house at Aubel. A German battalion came to Aubel shortly after my arrival. They took the four sons of a farmer at Aubel prisoner at the farm and took them to the police station in Aubel. This was on the pretence that they had fired on them, which was untrue. Nobody fired on them. They invoked the protection of Baron de F . . . The four were released at 9 o'clock in the evening. The Germans burnt another farm. There were no Belgian soldiers in the neighbourhood at the time when the Germans arrived. A few days afterwards another German regiment got into Aubel at half-past 11 o'clock at night. They levelled their revolvers on the people living in the station district so as to bully them into leaving their houses and they shut them up, men, women, and children, in a livery stable. They then took their places in the beds.

 

a1
Aubel
belgian refugee.

    On the 4th August 1914 at Herve I saw at about 2 o'clock in the afternoon near the station five Uhlans ; these were the first German troops I had seen. They were followed by a German officer and some soldiers in a motor car. The men in the car called out to a couple of young fellows who were standing about 30 yards away. The young men being afraid, ran off, and then the Germans fired upon them and killed one of them named D . . . ., aged 20. I know that he was killed, although I did not exactly see him fall, because his companion told me so.
    On the 6th August 1914, at about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, I saw from Herve the church and several houses in the market square of the village of Battice burning. This village is situated about 2 miles from Herve, we could not go there because the Germans were in between.
    On the 8th August at about 9 a.m., whilst the German foot soldiers were burning Herve (they burnt altogether about 327 houses between the 8th and 10th August) I saw some mounted men ride along the footpaths and shoot with their revolvers in at doors and windows of the houses as they passed.
    It was common knowledge that on that day, namely, 8th August, the Germans having passed quietly through Herve but for the incident mentioned above, on finding their road blocked owing to the resistance of Fleron, one of the Liège forts, returned to Herve, and, enraged at such resistance, fired indiscriminately in all quarters of the town, and in the Rue de la Station they shot Mme. G....., hitting at close range although she had a crucifix in her hand, begging for mercy. The body was left exposed in the roadway for three days.
    About 50 men escaping from the burning houses were seized and taken outside the town and shot.
    The German staff officers who were staying in my hotel told my wife that the reason why they had so treated Herve was because the inhabitants of the town would not petition for a passage of the Germans at Fleron.
    The able-bodied citizens were requisitioned by the German to fight the fire, and while they were so doing the Germans gave themselves up to pillage and loaded motor cars with everything of value they could find.
     At Melen, a hamlet of Labouxhe-Melen on the west of Herve, 40 men were shot.
    In the case of one family the father and mother were shot, and a daughter of 22, having been outraged, died because of the violence she had received. A son was wounded by several shots.

 

 

a 2
Herve, &c.
belgian soldier.

    About 4th August, I am not sure to a day or so, near Vottem we were pursuing some Uhlans. I saw a man, woman, and a girl about 9,  who had been killed. They were on the threshold of a house, one on the top of the other, as if they had been shot down, one after the other, as they tried to escape. The same day, or the day after, I was on patrol duty. The members of the patrol were not of my class, and I do not know their names. Near Vottem we found an old man of about 70 hanging from a tree. The Uhlans had just passed. The same day we found another man, a civilian, lying dead in the road. He had been shot.
    After the battle of Liège I saw the Germans bayoneting the Belgian wounded as they—the Germans—advanced. I was about 300 yards off. I saw seven or eight so killed.

 

a3
Vottem
belgian refugee.

    On the 5th August last I was taken prisoner by the Germans  together with five other men (names given) in the cellar of my house. The Germans who took us prisoners belonged to the 35th and 56th regiments, and two of them came actually into the cellar, but in the street outside there were very many more. Our arms were tied behind our back. We were marched off in the direction of Helen. There were about 200 of us prisoners altogether. When we had gone about a mile three men tried to escape. One only got about 40 yards before he was shot down. After this two others escaped and I have not seen them since. Just before we got to Melen I saw a woman with a child in her arms standing on the side of the road on our left hand side watching the soldiers go by. Her name was G . . ., aged about 63, and a neighbour of mine. A German officer was marching beside us on our left. The officer asked the woman for some water in good French. She went inside her son's cottage to get some and brought it immediately. We had stopped. The officer went into the cottage garden and drank the water. The woman then said when she saw the prisoners, " Instead of giving you water you deserve to be shot." The officer shouted to us " March." We went on, and immediately I saw the officer draw his revolver and shoot the woman and child. One shot killed both. This took place at about 9 o'clock a.m. We went on to Melen and were kept there till 5 p.m., when we were let go. On my way back I saw the dead bodies of the woman and child still lying where they had been shot.
    When I returned I found my house had been burnt down. The Germans were still round my house. They invited me to go and sleep with them in the field near by, which I did. On the next day every man in the village was taken prisoner. There were 57 of them, they were taken into a field belonging to a man named J. E . . . An officer said, " You shot at us." One of us asked if he might say a few words. His name was J. R . . . He said, " If you think these people have fired, kill me, but let all these men go." He said this in German. The officer answered by ordering his men to fire. His men were drawn up facing the prisoners, who were drawn up in three ranks. The soldiers fired a volley and killed many, and then fired twice more. Then they went through the ranks and bayoneted everyone still living. I saw many bayoneted in this way.
   I was not among these prisoners because one of the German soldiers told me what was going to be done and advised me to hide. I went into a house which the Germans had already searched, and which backed on to the field, and saw everything from one of the windows. I was alone in this house, but there was a woman in the cellar. I stayed in this house for about 5 hours until about 4 p.m. I walked in the direction of my house, which was about 200 metres away. On the way I saw about 20 dead bodies lying here and there along the road. One of them was that of a little girl aged 13. The rest were men, and most of them had had their heads bashed in. There were German sentries everywhere. In one case a man's body and those of his three sons were lying at the door of his house. This man had been a gravedigger. I know of nothing having been done to annoy the Germans.

 

a 4
Soumagne
& c.
belgian refugee (Boy).

    On the 5th August of this year the Germans came into the village (Soumagne)  at midnight. There were 165 infantry and 35 cavalry. I live with my mother and sister. We were at the time in the cellar of the café next door. The Germans passed and then turned and fired (rifle) on the village. About half an hour after the Germans. came, several of them came shouting and yelling to the café. They broke the windows and broke the door. My mother went out of the cellar door. I heard the soldiers cry " halt," then I heard a shot and my mother fell back into the cellar. She was killed. There were 12 others with me in the cellar. The firing lasted until 7 o'clock in the morning. About two miles from Soumagne is Fort Fleron, which is one of the Liège forts. The Germans were under fire from Fort Fleron. After the firing had gone on a short time I left the cellar and hid in a hedge. The village was between Fort Fleron and the German position. I stayed in the hedge for some time and then went into a house to hide. As soon as I got inside I was taken prisoner by six or seven Germans who came and searched it and took all inside prisoners. Our arms were bound—we were roped together. About 40 of us altogether. The guns from the fort were firing on us and five of us were hit. The Germans took us to Labouxhe. There a priest told us that the Germans were going to keep the eight youngest and let the rest go on condition that they did not disclose the position of the German troops. I was the youngest, but they did not take me. I was freed with the 31 others.
    I went to Fecher, where I was taken prisoner by the German sentries. One of the sentries showed me a small revolver which he said was mine. It was not. I was with six others. We were put in a corner of the church. An officer came to me with an open razor. He said in French, " I am going to cut your throat with this." One of my companions shrugged his shoulders at this and the officer told one of the German soldiers to shoot him, which he did. We were then bound.  There were 40 of us in the church and we were taken out of the church and marched with a large number of others towards Fort Fleron. On the way I saw a large number of corpses of Belgian women and men. I knew a large number of the bodies. Two young men I knew (aged respectively 18 and 22) of Fecher, both told me afterwards that they had been used as a screen by the Germans and had been fired on by the Belgians and very many killed. We were taken to Baller * where we were taken into a field. There were 265 of us and an officer told us that we were all going to be killed. One of them was my schoolmaster. The Germans then took us to an old fort named La Chartreuse. We remained there for 24 hours and were given nothing to eat. We were let go and I returned home. On the way I saw the bodies of two men whom I knew. I got home and went into the cellar. Everything had been burnt. I went to try and find my sister but was again taken prisoner with the vicar of Micheroux. After five hours we were let loose again. I went to Liège and there on August 22nd I saw many bodies in the Rue Chartreuse. I do not know the names of them. I did not see them shot.

* ?

 

a 5
belgian soldier.

    On 5th August 1914 my regiment was stationed at Herstal. In  the main street of the village, near a corner house, I saw lying the dead bodies of a man, a woman and two children. The villagers told me they had been murdered by the Germans after the battle was over.

 

a 6
Herstal.
belgian refugee.

     On the first Wednesday of the war some German soldiers, belonging to the 16th and 23rd Regiments of Infantry, came to the town, and made all the civilians leave their houses, and took all of them to the church. They had visited and searched my father's house (where I lived) but found nothing. They seemed enraged by the firing from the forts of Barchon. After two hours the women and children were allowed to leave the church. The men, about 280 in number, among whom were my uncle and myself, were kept in church all night, and at 6 o'clock on the following morning we were all taken to Hakoister with the two regiments above-named. There we were placed in rows of fours, and some cannon were placed alongside of us, and they were fired in the direction of the forts of Barchon. At the time there were no Belgian soldiers in view ; and the only object in firing upon the forts was in order that the forts might reply, and thus hit some of the civilian prisoners. They did not reply. We were then told that we should be shot and that we could confess to the rector of the parish, who was one of our number.
    The soldiers then went in front of us, and presented their rifles at us ; but just as they were about to shoot an officer arrived on horseback and said " Halt." The soldiers then lowered their rifles. We were then made to walk to Battice, 6 or 7 miles distant. Before starting from Hakoister, the first seven prisoners were tied together with cords. On arrival at Battice we were taken to a field, and were told to keep our eyes on these seven men. The five inner men were then shot dead, and the two outer men were sent back amongst the other prisoners. I cannot explain why the particular five were selected. I heard no complaint made against them.
    Just outside Hakoister my uncle, who suffered from heart disease and whom we were helping along, said " I cannot go any further, leave me here." We placed him at the side of the road and went on. I did not see him again till the next morning.
    We were then taken to a place called Chaussee d'Herve, where we saw some Belgian soldiers in the distance. The German soldiers then knelt down behind the civilians, and fired over our heads in the direction of the Belgian soldiers. The Belgians then fired, and two of the civilians were wounded. When, however, they saw the civilians in front of the German soldiers they ceased firing, and retreated. The above-named two wounded civilians were shot dead the following day by German soldiers.
   The civilian prisoners were on the next day taken into a field, and compelled to lie down. I saw four of the prisoners, viz. : — my uncle, two others whom I knew, and a man whom I did not know, tied together, and prodded with the bayonets ; my uncle bled at the leg from being thus wounded ; and then I saw some of the soldiers place lighted cigarettes in each of these prisoner's ears and nostrils. I asked a German officer to release my uncle and he replied that if he had not fired on them he would be liberated. When I had not seen my uncle for some time I asked a German officer in French where my uncle was, and told him that he had heart disease, and he replied in French, " It will be all right; he will come back to you." I afterwards put the same question to the Doctor, and he gave the same reply.
    We then left the field, and marched towards Julemont, and were afterwards placed in another field near Julemont, and remained there for 24 hours. We were given no food or drink ; and many of the prisoners began to lose their reason. One of the prisoners, who was a doctor in the Red Cross, then spoke to a German doctor, and shortly afterwards we were allowed to go free. I again asked a German officer about my uncle, and he replied that I would find him all right. On the next day I went back to this field, and there found my uncle and the three other men who had been bound together, and I saw that they had all been shot dead. I then brought my uncle's body to Blegny, and there buried him.
    He was never accused of molesting the Germans, but he was shot because he was too feeble to walk.
    At Blegny I was warned to flee from the place because the German cavalry were coming, and would kill anybody they met. I then went to Hakoister, and was again captured, but was only kept for a few minutes, and then allowed to go on again. I went back to Blegny. I there saw four bodies covered with sheets. I was about 100 metres away. I was told that the bodies were those of K. . . ., H, K . . ., and the burgomaster, and the priest. As to the shooting of K . . ., some of the people said the Germans had accused him of giving information to Belgian soldiers about the forts ; and another reason was the possession by him of a large number of revolvers. These revolvers had not, however, been officially tested. With regard to the priest, the people said he had been accused of sending telephone messages to Belgian troops from his church.

 

a 7
Blecny

 

belgian refugee.

   Between the 5th and 6th August, a German regiment, namely, the Death's Head Hussars, came to the café tenanted by A. . . .'s father in Hamoir. The young man, A . . ., 19 years of age, was standing at the door at 9 o'clock at night. When he saw the Germans he went indoors, and the Germans tried to get in. They shot three bullets through the door, and the boy was killed outright. I was about 200 yards away, and saw the Germans shoot at the door. I afterwards saw a coffin, and was informed that it contained the body of the young man, and I attended his funeral.
    I produce four photographs of portions of a house at Hamoir, belonging to a Dutchman. This house was unoccupied when the Germans arrived, and they pillaged and stole everything of value, and smashed the furniture.

 

a8
Hamoir.
 
belgian refugee.

    About the beginning of the war, on a Thursday, about 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon, I was on the Chaussee leading from Liège to Aix-la-Chapelle. I saw a German soldier firing on a man whom I knew, about 28 years of age, who was carrying a baby in his arms. He was running away on the Chaussee. He fell dead as a stone. The child was not hurt. Afterwards three German soldiers came up, that is to say, the soldier mentioned above and two others. They followed the wife of the aforementioned man, who also was running away on the Chaussee. One of the soldiers hit her in the stomach with the butt end of his rifle. Two others also hit her but these blows were not serious. As for me, I went back into my house, which is on the Chaussee a 100 yards further down. I went into the loft. There is a little window in the roof of the loft. I looked out of this little window and I saw a man whom I knew shot. There were a lot of German soldiers in the middle of the village and he was shot by these soldiers. He fell dead on the spot. He was about 28 years of age. I then took refuge in the cowshed and stopped there till about 2 o'clock in the morning. Then about 20 Germans came and set fire to my house. Five or six days afterwards two women met me on the road to Hayne. I know them both. One told me that the Germans had raped her in her house at Hayne near Soumagne and the other told me the same. The women were both together when they were raped. They were raped by a great many Germans. One of the women told me that the house was quite full of them. They told me finally that their husbands had been shot together with 35 others near their house after they had been raped. I saw 56 corpses of civilians in a meadow at Soumagne on the night when my house was burnt. There were only men and a few boys ; no women. Some had been killed by bayonet thrusts and others by rifle shots. In the heap of corpses above mentioned was that of the son of the burgomaster. His throat had been cut from ear to ear and his tongue had been pulled out and cut off. I did not see his tongue. It was not in his mouth. In another meadow 300 or 400 yards off I saw 19 corpses of civilians, men and boys. I helped to bury the corpses of the first heap of 56 of which I have spoken. We put 44 of them in a pit in the meadow itself and the others in the cemetery.
 

a9
Soumagne, &c.
BELGIAN RELUGEE.

August 6th, in Herstal, I saw a civilian shot by German soldiers. This was about 1 a.m. At this time the Belgian soldiers were 400 to 500 metres away. They were then retreating. The soldiers who shot the civilian were 40 to 50 yards from the place where he was. There was constant firing by the regiment Kaiser Wilhelm, No. 90. In the morning I saw 30 civilians, old men mostly, one woman ; this woman was married to a mechanic, who was also shot. I also saw the body of a child. These people were shot in their houses, the doors of which had been broken in. I myself and many others went in to look at these victims. This was at 5 to 6 a.m. on the morning of August 6th. The Belgian soldiers came back at 4.30 a.m. and shot five Germans. The whole of the Germans (about 30) who had been firing from the houses were killed except 8 who were taken prisoners three days after.
 
a 10 Herstal.
 
BELGIAN SOLDIER.

    On August 6th I was serving at Herstal near Liège. We were fighting a rearguard action with the Germans. In the course of this fighting we passed a house, in front of which were the bodies of a woman and two men. The house was a small one. We marched past the house in column. The rear part of the column—about 300 men—stopped and went up to the bodies. The woman was about 50. She had been killed by a bayonet wound in the chest. The body was covered in blood and so was the ground near it. The men were about 55 and 25 years of age. The body of one of the men—the elder one—was lying across that of the woman, and the two bodies were lying in the door of the house. The body of the younger man was lying in front of the house, about two metres away from those of the woman and the other man. Both the men had been bayoneted in the chest. About 4 metres in front of the bodies of the woman and elder man was the body of a Belgian soldier who had been bayoneted, and just inside the door was the body of another soldier. He had been shot.
 
a 11 Herstal.
 
BELGIAN REFUGEE

     On the arrival of the German troops in the village of  Micheroux. during the time when the fort of Fleron was holding out, they came to a block of four cottages, and having turned out the inhabitants, set the cottages on fire and burnt them.
    From one of the cottages a woman (name given) came out with a baby in her arms, and a German soldier snatched it from her and dashed it to the ground, killing it then and there.
 
a12
Micheroux
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    When the district of Herstal was occupied by the Germans, I was employed, together with many other inhabitants of the Commune, in picking up the wounded, Belgians and Germans alike, on the battlefield, so that they might be taken to the National Factory. The Germans were in occupation of the battlefield. I saw them fire on four civilians who were engaged in picking up the wounded. They were killed on the spot. Their names are unknown to me. They had done nothing to justify their being killed. Twenty civilians were killed in this way ; at least I am so informed. I saw killed only the four mentioned above. At this time, with the exception of wounded men, there were no Belgian soldiers in the Commune or the district.
 
a 13
Herstal.
 
BELGIAN SOLDIER.

    On 7th August I was in some trenches by the side of the road in front of Liège, after the battle of Belle Flamme. People were coming along the road from Visé, flying before the Germans. We saw a boy of about 12 with a bandage where his hand should be. We asked what was the matter, and were told the Germans had cut his hand off because he clung to his parents, who were being thrown in the fire. Personally, I only saw the bandage. We also saw a mother and her little girl with a bandage on the latter's head. The mother told us the child's ear had been cut off by the Germans, " for listening to their orders," they said. The girl was about 10 years old, and could not have understood the orders. She was a Walloon
 
a 14
Liège
outskirts.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

   On August 11th the 36th infantry regiment, and the 40th artillery regiment of the German Army came through the Rue des Champs at Hermalle. The soldiers lay down in an oat-field and I gave them drinks. Meanwhile another regiment came through on its way to Haccourt, with empty lorries. These men fired on the fugitives who were coming along the road from Haccourt with their parish priest, whose name I do not know. A woman of Hermalle was shot down, but not killed. She is all right again now. The soldiers next forced the parish priest to get up on a cart; they tied him up and took him off to Haccourt. It appears that he was shot on his arrival at Haccourt: so I was informed three days afterwards at Haccourt. A young man got away during the firing which I have spoken of. He was injured in the head and had a bullet in his left arm. I helped him to get his coat on near M . . .'s house. There was no justification on military grounds for the firing. The civilians neither fired on the soldiers nor did anything contrary to the laws of war. Three hundred and sixty-eight of us were imprisoned in Hermalle church for 17 days. Only the men were imprisoned. We were only prisoners at night; during the day we were compelled to dig trenches for the defence of the place. The Germans compelled us to do so.

 
a 15 Hermalle.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    The Germans entered Visé on 4th August.
    The first house they came to as they entered the town they burned. It was a medium-sized private residence. There was no firing from this house, nor any shooting by civilians at all in Visé, I know of no reason for the burning, any more than for the killing of civilians.
On the 14th and 15th August the Germans burnt practically all the houses in Visé. I saw commissioned officers directing and supervising the burning. It was done systematically with the use of benzene spread on the floors and then lighted. In my own and another house I saw officers before the burning come in with their revolvers in their hands, and have china, valuable antique furniture, and other such things removed. This being done, the houses were by their orders set on fire. On the morning of 15th August, two officers inspected my house, and finding there were things worth taking, they wrote and signed a paper directing the house to be spared and pinned it on the door. [Exhibited.] Then when the valuables had been removed the place was burnt down. I took the paper off the door and preserved it.
 
a 16
Visé.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    About the 11th or 12th of August the Germans occupied Heure le Romain, which is near Oupeye. For two days they stayed there and behaved quite politely to the inhabitants. The Germans then discovered a building on the door of which had been placed some notices with reference to a cyclists' club. This notice was signed by the burgomaster of the place and a priest who was the honorary president of the club. It had been placed there before the war. On finding this notice they made all the inhabitants go into the church, among them even old men who had not been out of bed for over six years. They kept them there for 24 hours.
    The Germans then sent for the burgomaster and the priest who had signed the notice and they demanded that 25 of the cyclists whose names had appeared on the notice at the school should be given up to them to be shot. The burgomaster and the priest refused to do this. It was not the burgomaster himself who was there, as he was ill, but it was the burgomaster's brother who came in his place. The priest said to the Germans that he was not going to give them any names, but if they wanted to shoot anybody they could shoot him.
The burgomaster's brother and the priest were then taken and placed against the wall of the church and bayoneted by the Germans. I did not see the actual killing myself. I understand the excuse for killing these people was that the notice about the cyclists' club was a military one. It was nothing of the sort, only a pleasure excursion.
    I saw the people all put into the church by the Germans. I was hiding in the fields at the time. I then went back to my house at Oupeye. The next day I came back to Heure le Romain and saw that the whole village had been burnt.
On my return to Heure le Romain I saw a man and his wife and his infant son and his mother-in-law hiding in a garden. They were about 200 metres from where I was. The Germans approached and I heard shots. Subsequently I passed quite close to where the shots had been fired, and there I saw the bodies of the man and his wife and the baby. I heard afterwards that the baby was not killed but was taken charge of by the Red Cross people, whose hospital had been established in the Fabrique Nationale, which is at Herstal. The baby, so I was informed, eventually died at this hospital, but before he died photographs were taken of the injuries which had been done to him. These photographs are in the possession of the head of the Red Cross at Herstal.
 
a 17
Heure le
Remain.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.
    In the month of August I came back from Haccourt to Vouche.* At Vouche I met a squadron of Uhlans and artillery. I saw them about 300 metres away. The Uhlans had a device of a skull and crossbones on their shakos. The artillery was firing on the fort of Pontisse just outside Liège. When I saw the Uhlans and the artillery I hid myself behind a hedge. From there I saw two young Belgian civilians, about 18 to 20 years old, working in the field. I heard the Uhlans shouting at these two men but I could not understand what they said. The two Belgians did not seem to understand what was said, and as they paid no attention, the Uhlans fired at them and wounded both of them. I saw them both fall. I then saw some of the artillerymen dig a trench, quite a shallow one. They put the bodies of the two civilians into this trench and covered them with earth. The earth did not cover the bodies more than a few inches. I was from 200 to 300 metres away from this grave, but I could see quite distinctly all that happened. The Germans took the bodies by the head and the heels, and I could see quite plainly that they were not dead, as their arms were moving up and down still. I am certain the men were not dead when they were buried.

* Vaux ?
 
a 18
Vaux (?)
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    One day—about a fortnight after the war began—I went from my home at Seraing to Flémalle Grande to get some wire ; after getting the wire I proceeded to my home at Seraing. About halfway between Flémalle Grande and Jemeppe there is an inn called " Compagne de Flémalle." As I approached the inn I saw some German foot soldiers. I do not know to what regiment they belonged, but they wore helmets with spikes. There were about 14 of them and they were placing four men and a woman up against the wall of the inn. The men were unknown to me ; but I knew the woman ; she lived with her husband in a house next door to me. I cannot remember her husband's name, but since I came to England I have seen her ; I saw her at Aldwych.
    After placing them against the wall, the soldiers went a little distance from them, then shot the four men. They did not shoot the woman, though they had placed her in the middle with two of the men on each side of her. She cried and fell on her knees and begged for mercy and they did not shoot her. The shots did not kill the men, and they lay groaning on the ground and the soldiers then went up to them, killed them outright with their bayonets.
Two of the soldiers tried to kiss the woman ; but she resisted and escaped from them and ran into her house. I saw no more and went on my way home. I was alone, and so far as I could see there was no one about.
    I never heard the names of the four men who were shot or how it came about that they were shot.
 
a 19
Flémalle Grande.
 
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    K . . ., in addition to his ordinary business, opened a large café, at the rear of which was a large dancing saloon, which adjoined his workshop (at Blegny Trembleur). He had only been in occupation of this café nine weeks when war was declared. K . . . had 10 children, four daughters and six sons. The German soldiers had an engagement near my home on the 4th August; it was the first engagement between the Belgian and the German troops in the war. During the following fortnight the Germans came to and from the town, and they had had drink at the caf
é.
    On the 15th August (Our Lady's Day) some 300 to 400 Germans arrived. I think they belonged to the 64th Regiment of Infantry. Prior to this date K . . . had opened the dancing saloon for the reception of wounded soldiers, under the Belgian Red Cross, and there had been some German wounded soldiers there. On the 15th August, however, there were no wounded soldiers in the place. The German wounded had only been allowed to remain there for a few days, and were then sent away by their own people.
    On the 15th August K . . . told me that the major of the German troops had come to the café that day and ordered him to put all the drink into the cellar, and he asked him and his brother to sleep outside the cellar. There was then, however, not much drink left, as the German soldiers had previously taken a lot of wine and champagne from the café. Some of them had paid for what they had, but the majority did not pay. K . . . and his brother spent the night outside the cellar door.
    On the next morning the 16th August, K . . .* and his brother were taken off as prisoners, together with the Burgomaster (A. R . . .) and the priest (R. L . . .), and were taken to the church. They were then placed against a wall, and all four shot by the German soldiers. I did not see K . . . and his brother shot, but I was informed of this by some friends. We heard the sound of the shots.
    K . . . had been accustomed to make revolvers for some big manufacturers at Liège, and when the Germans arrived he had 15,000 unfinished " Bull Dog" revolvers in his workshop. He had no cartridges. K . . . had previously been ordered by the Senator of Liège and a German officer to nail up the doors of the workshop, and this was done. I was present when the order was given. K . . . employed 128 workmen, but they worked in their own houses. The whole of K . . 's stock of revolvers were taken by the Germans. I saw them taken away. Just after we heard the noise of the soldiers shooting their prisoners. I heard some of the Germans charging their revolvers, and three of them came upstairs with the revolvers in their hands, and told us to leave the house at once, as they were going to burn everything. K . . .'s wife asked for permission to take her money (8,000 francs), but the Germans refused to let her do this. The house was then burned down.
    I had to leave the house with only my trousers on, and a coat. K . . .'s little boy only had his night shirt on. The whole family then went to my cousin's house.
    Half an hour later, after the Germans had left, I went out to find K . . . I saw his dead body, and the dead bodies of the other three men. One of K . . .'s hands had been slashed, and the fingers were nearly severed from the hand. I also saw that he had two bayonet wounds in his breast. I did not notice the condition of the other three men, but was afterwards told that they had also been stabbed in the breast with a bayonet.
K . . . had had in his possession four certificates, which he kept in his pocket book. The first was from a German officer who had come to the café with a Senator of Liège, stating that K . . . was allowed to pass through the troops to fetch provisions. The second certificate stated that K . . . was allowed to retain his weapons in his workshop. The third was from the Burgomaster, to the effect that K . . . belonged to the Red Cross. The fourth was from a Belgian doctor, to the same effect. I afterwards looked in K . . ,'s pocket book, and found that they were not in it. They had not taken his money.

* See a 7. H. K . . . of that deposition is the brother.
 
a 20
Blegny
Trembleur.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    On the 16th of August the Germans took me prisoner at my house (at Flémalle Grande) at 6 o'clock in the morning. They took off all the civilians to the square of Profond-Val, 200 in all; they cleared all the women out of the houses so as to search and pillage them.
The soldiers told us that we were going to be shot if the fort of Flémalle did not surrender by midday. It did surrender at midday, and they let us go at 12.30.
    On my way home I met Mrs. D . . ., a neighbour. She told me that some German soldiers had driven her daughter up into the loft to rape her. She was 8 ½ months gone in pregnancy. Two of them raped her. The child was born the following day. The woman tried to go up after her daughter, but the Germans stopped her with their bayonets. The daughter's Christian name is J . . ., but I do not know her married name.
The same day a girl of 16 named W . . . told me that two Germans had raped her. She was too weak to resist them. This happened in her house.
 
a 21
Flémalle
Grande.
BELGIAN SOLDIER.

    On or about the 16th August, after the fall of Liège, my regiment was left behind guarding some of the forts. The German Army had gone forward towards Namur, following our retreating army. Our regiment then followed the Germans along the route they had taken. I, with three others, J. B . . ., Corporal V . . ., and one other, a Fleming, whose name I forget, were on patrol duty thrown out on our left as we marched. We were passing the flying ground outside Liège at Ans when I saw a woman, apparently of middle age, perhaps 28 to 30 years old, stark naked, tied to a tree. At her feet were two little children about three or four years old. All three were dead. I believe the woman had one of her breasts cut off, but I cannot be sure of this. Her whole bosom was covered with blood and her body was covered with blood and black marks. Both children had been killed by what appeared to be bayonet wounds. The woman's clothes were lying on the grass thrown all about the place. I was near J. B . . . at the moment we found the woman. I told Corporal V ... what I had seen later on. I was marching on the outside of the patrol—on grass land, B . . . being next to me and the corporal closest to the regiment. J. B . . . cut the cords which held the woman up by stabbing them with his bayonet. The body fell and we left it there. We could not stop to bury the bodies because we could see the Germans following. Between the road and the tree to which the woman was tied were some buildings and yards so that the body could not be seen from the road.
 
a 22
Ans.
COOK.

    On the 14th July I left Nouzon to go to a place in Germany. I embarked on a barge which belonged to the man to whom I was engaged to be married. I was going to pay a visit to his family. We proceeded down the Meuse in this barge and arrived at Liège on or about the 3rd August.
About a fortnight after we had arrived at Liège I was paying a visit on shore in order to buy some provisions. I went into the shop of a pork butcher in a street near the Place de 1'Universite. Opposite this shop there was a fruit shop kept by a Spaniard. While I was making my purchases in the butcher's shop I saw the Germans go into the shop kept by the Spaniard and shoot the Spaniard and his shopman. I know of no reason why this was done. I do not know the names of the Spaniard and his shopman. I saw the wife of the proprietor of the shop come running down into the shop with nothing on but her chemise. She was pushed outside by the Germans. I then ran away myself because I was afraid. The same night that this happened I left Liège on foot and went as far as Maestricht.

 
a 23
 Liège.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    On Thursday the 20th August 1914, at about 8 a.m., a company of German soldiers being the 1st company of the 26th Regiment of Infantry of the garrison of Aix-la-Chapelle under the command of Lieut. Schmidt, arrived in my street (in Liège). This officer was afterwards billeted at my house and his name was written on the outside of the door. The soldiers brought with them a wagon which I thought contained ammunition, and left it near my house after taking out the horses and moving them further up the street. The people were all ordered to be inside their houses by 7 p.m.
At 9.20 p.m. the same day while Lieut. Schmidt was sitting with me in my cellar kitchen, eating his supper, I heard the sound of some shots coming from the bottom of the street. The lieutenant, who had his revolver beside him on the table, rushed out of my house. I bolted the door after him.
In front of my house was No. 2, Rue des Pitteurs which was then unoccupied, the occupant having left. The next house No. 4 was also unoccupied. No. 6 was occupied by a man about 55 years of age and his wife (who was grey haired). The two windows of my kitchen are barred on the outside and I looked out of the window and could see that on the path were lined up a number of German soldiers.
    At about half an hour after Schmidt had left my house I saw some of the soldiers break open the door of No. 2 and throw into the house some benzine which I saw them take from the wagon in front of my house. I then heard someone call out " Trak " and immediately the soldiers fired into the house ; there was an explosion, and immediately the house caught fire. I at once took refuge in my cellar and through a little hole could still see what was happening. Mr. and Mrs. G . . . immediately came out of their house, the man in front and the woman close behind. Immediately they appeared the soldiers fired at them and killed them. Neither the man nor his wife had any arms and had given no provocation whatever. The soldiers were all of the 26th Regiment. I did not see Lieut. Schmidt but I have no doubt he was in the street. I repeatedly afterwards heard the order of "Trak" given and at once shots were fired.
    When I saw Mr. and Mrs. G . . . shot I and my wife went on to the roof of our house and remained there till 3 o'clock the following morning. I had a small ladder and placed this from one roof to another and eventually got to the roof of a street called Rue de Baviere at about 4 a.m. The soldiers after they had fired No. 2, Rue des Pitteurs, fired No. 8 in the same way, and then a public school on the same side of the street. Then the houses on the other side of the street commencing from No. 17 were fired ; and by 4 a.m. the whole street was on fire, including my own house No.l.
On the morning of the 21st August Lieut.-General Kolewe issued a proclamation which stated that the firing of the houses was in consequence of some Russian students having fired upon German soldiers. There was no truth in this allegation as there were no Russian students in the Rue des Pitteurs which was the first street to be attacked. I knew the whole of its inhabitants.
    The police had previously visited every house and collected all the arms. I am certain that the German soldiers were the first to shoot I should certainly have heard if any shots had been fired by any person beforehand.
    There was no possible reason for firing the houses. The only excuse I can give is that the Germans had been drinking and I noticed when they fired that the soldiers were half drunk. When he was in my house I noticed that Schmidt had been drinking. I did not see him after he left my house.
The houses were burning the whole of the next day (21st August). I then discovered that seven persons in all had been killed, namely Mr. and Mrs. G . . ., Mr. and Mrs. S . . ., and their daughter aged 21, who lived at No. 13 (or 15), Rue des Pitteurs and two other persons. I did not see the bodies of the three S . . . s, but I was informed that they had been shot in their cellar, and that there were no less than 22 bullets in their three bodies.
 
a 24
ARMOURER.

     I was employed in an arms factory in Liège. The Germans entered Liège about the middle of August. They published orders that no intoxicating liquors were to be sold to anyone. The wife of a Liège innkeeper, whom I knew well, having fled from her home, came to me and told me that after the publication of the order above mentioned German soldiers came to her husband's shop and asked for liquors ; then he told them that he was forbidden to supply them with any ; and that they thereupon shot him in the head with a revolver and killed him. She also said that her son (aged 17) was present and that he also was shot and killed with a revolver. The innkeeper's wife told me that after her husband and son had been killed the Germans set fire to the shop. I saw that this shop and indeed many other houses in the same street were burned ; and many in other parts of the town. Houses were also burned in Rue des Pitteurs and in one house three girls were burned or suffocated. One of them did not die at once but after removal to hospital. There was no firing on the troops by civilians nor any sort of provocation by civilians. The Germans did allege firing by civilians as their excuse for burning houses, but it was untrue. The burgomaster and the chief clergyman of St. Christopher's Church complained to the German commandant of the burning of houses, and then the Germans engaged in patrolling were changed for men of other regiments and there was no more destruction of property.
 
a 25
STEEL TURNER

     I saw many houses in Liège set on fire by German soldiers, although I never saw a single shot fired on them from any house or by any civilian.
As the houses were fired the occupants tried to escape, and I myself saw four people fall back into their houses suffocated, not daring to venture out or they would have been shot by the German soldiers. I saw 20 people shot as they were endeavouring to leave their houses.
 
a 26
GUNSMITH.

     During the occupation of Liège by the Germans I served as a civie guard. About the *11th or 12th of August the Germans shot 18 people, some Russians, some Spaniards and the proprietor of the Café Carpentier, at the corner of the Rue de la Regence in front of the University. They alleged that the foreigners had fired on them ; this was untrue. The bodies were taken to the Bourse de Travail. The people in question were shot as they were coming away from a students' dinner. I also saw all the houses in the Rue des Pitteurs burnt on the same night. The Germans burnt them by means of incendiary bombs. Most of them were drunk. They made a practice of stealing wine pretty nearly everywhere.


* This date is inaccurate.
 
a 27
CIVIL ENGINEER.

    I was at Liège on about August 20th and afterwards. The city was perfectly quiet until about 8 p.m. At about 9.15 p.m. I was in bed reading when I heard the sound of rifle fire. I at once dressed myself, and the noise of the firing came nearer and nearer. About 10 p.m. they were shooting everywhere, and I had the impression that several thousand men were engaged in shooting at the same time. About 10.30 p.m. several machine guns were firing and artillery as well. About 11 p.m. I saw between 45 and 50 houses burning. There were two seats of the fire : the first was at the Place de I'Universite, and was composed of eight houses (I was close by at the time) ; the second portion on fire was on the other side of the Meuse on the Quai des Pecheurs, and there were about 35 houses burning. I heard a whole series of orders given in German and also bugle calls, followed by the cries of the victims, and I saw women running about hi the street with children chased by the soldiers. I saw three corpses of women taken out of the houses eight days after the city was set on fire ; they had been burnt. I know the houses were fired with petrol from my experience as an engineer and the way the flames spread. I saw also the Belgian firemen who came to put out the fire. I was informed that the Belgian firemen were prevented by the Germans from extinguishing the fire, and they were obliged to stand up against the wall with their hands up. The next day they were allowed to put out the fire.
    On the next morning (August 21st) I saw a workman whom I know personally. This man lives in the Rue des Pitteurs, in one of the houses which was burned down. About 9 p.m. a German rang the bell at his house, and immediately the door was opened the Germans commenced shooting into the house without hitting anyone; they came into the house with petroleum and set fire to it. Then as the men and women were escaping the Germans fired at them, some of them being wounded. The men were taken prisoners and the women driven away.
The next morning (August 22nd) of the 40 prisoners which they took about 12 were shot ; the rest were allowed to go.
    For the following reasons I conclude that before 5 p.m. the shooting was settled upon. 'I have heard that a German soldier warned a concierge not to go out of doors, intimating that something would take place in the house. That house was not burnt, but the house next door was. Another soldier said to the person who was living in the house which was burned that he was warned to leave. In a building called " Emulation," 90 German soldiers who were living there left at 8 p.m., and the shooting commenced at 9 p.m., the building being burned that night.
 
a 28
ENGINEER.

    At Liège one evening I saw the Germans burning the houses in the Place de l'Universite with tins of paraffin and tar, or something of that nature. I stopped there looking at them from 10 o'clock to half-past 11 that night. About half -past 10 I saw a woman and children escaping from the houses. The Germans then called out in German, which I understand, that the men had got to stop in the houses and, in fact, I saw three or four men trying to escape through the doors, but the Germans fired on them to stop them leaving. The men (that is to say, the three or four of whom I have spoken, and the others who were in the houses) were burnt. The fire brigade came up to the Place de l'Universite immediately after the fire began. The Germans prevented them from getting their hose pipes to work, saying that they would be shot if they did. They said that whatever had begun to burn had got to be burnt to the ground. The Germans robbed the cellars in Liège pretty nearly everywhere. They also stole goods and valuables in 50 houses in the town. My opinion is that they burnt the houses to cover up the robberies they had committed there.

 
a 29
PUBLICAN.

     About the 20th August I was at Liège. About half-past 9 in the evening I heard some shots fired. I was at the Hotel de Ville, acting as voluntary guard. Patrols were coming in from time to time to the Hotel de Ville ; one only failed to put in an appearance. It had been caught in the firing. We heard two shots fired by the cannon in the citadel. The Germans had been there for about a fortnight. Before the cannot shots were fired we heard cries ; it was the crowd shrieking in the street. Afterwards we began to see fires in the different districts of the town. About a dozen of the city guard came in and went out again with the firemen  to put out the fire. I was unwell and stopped at the Hotel de Ville. About midnight there was brought on a fire department cart a whole heap of corpses of civilians. Bits were blown out of their heads. The shots which killed them must have been fired at very close range. They were all civilian corpses. I saw nothing but men's corpses. There were 17 of them.
 
a 30
BELGIAN SOLDIER.

     About the 10th of August * I was in the street between the Rue des Pitteurs and the Rue Baswet. There were about 300 Germans of the 78th Regiment of Infantry in the Rue des Pitteurs. About 20 men were going up to each of the houses. One of them had a sort of syringe with which he squirted into the house and another would throw a bucket of water in. A handful of stuff was first put into the bucket and when the stuff in the bucket was thrown into the house there was an immediate explosion. In this way about 80 houses were set on fire. All the houses were on one side of the street. They did not burn any houses on the other side. Before setting fire to these houses the Germans drove any inhabitants there were in them into the cellars. All the houses were inhabited, but some of the inhabitants had got away before the Germans came up to them. At about 30 of the houses, I actually saw faces at the windows before the Germans entered and then saw the same faces at the cellar windows after the Germans had driven the people into the cellars. One set of Germans, about 20 in number, would do all this at a house and then set fire to it. Altogether this took the whole morning. Before each house was burnt it was thoroughly searched by the men who brought out all sorts of furniture and put it on to wagons which were waiting outside, I also saw some of the men bringing out bags of money and handing them to their officers. There were about 30 officers in the street. I am quite sure of this. There were also a crowd of Belgian civilians in the streets. I actually saw all these houses set fire to. In this way 35 people were burnt. I know this from the list which was put up in the police station afterwards and which I saw. One of the houses which was burnt was the house of a man I knew. He and two daughters, his nephew and niece were burnt there. His wife was away at the time. She had gone to Brussels the day before to see her parents. I know the family very well. That night I slept at the stationer's and on the following morning at 7.30, I went out and walked along the Rue des Pitteurs. I walked to wards the Place des l'Universite. When I was in the Place St. Lambert when I heard shooting, I went to try and find where it was going on. In the Rue Soens de Hasse I saw civilians brought out of their houses. About 150 Germans under eight officers.
   They were paying house to house visits, bringing all the people out of the houses and forming them up in the street. I kept some little distance away and so did many other Belgians who were with me. The Belgians from the houses were marched off to the Place de l'Universite between files of soldiers. I followed, keeping about 25 or 30 metres behind. When the Place was reached the Belgians were not formed up in any order, but the Germans fired on them. I heard an officer shout an order in German and all the Germans in one part of the square fired. The firing was not in volleys and went on for about 20 minutes. Whilst this was going on other Germans were going into other houses in the square and bringing out more Belgians whom they put among those who were being shot. Altogether 32 were killed—all men. I counted the bodies afterwards. I saw all this from the end of the Rue Soens de Hasse. There were many Belgians with me, but none of us were troubled. When I saw any Germans coming I got out of the way. I was not in uniform and had my revolver in my pocket. After the shooting about seven or eight were finished off with the bayonet. Immediately after the men had been killed, I saw the Germans going into the houses in the Place and bringing out the women and girls. About 20 were brought out. They were marched close to the corpses. Each of them was held by the arms. They tried to get away. They were made to lie on tables which had been brought into the square. About 15 of them were then violated. Each of them was violated by about 12 soldiers. While this was going on about 70 Germans were standing round the women including five officers (young). The officers started it. There were some of the Germans between me and the women, but I could see everything perfectly. The ravishing went on for about 1½ hours. I watched the whole time. Many of the women fainted and showed no sign of life. The Red Cross took them away to the hospital. While this was going on other Germans were burning the houses in the square. The houses were empty of people. I went back to the stationer's and got back about 2 o'clock. I heard the Germans say that they burnt and shot because they had been fired on by the Belgian civilians, but it was untrue.



* This date is inaccurate.
 

a 31
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    At Hermalle-sous-Huy, in the month of September, I was in the square or " place " in front of the station. There was a squad or platoon of German soldiers there in charge of an officer. They placed another officer who was with them against a wall. I then saw a woman, who keeps a café at Hermalle, come out and speak to the officer in charge of the platoon. The officer standing against the wall opposite to the platoon was then allowed to leave. I was told by the brother of the woman that the officer who was standing against the wall had violated her daughter, aged about 18, and had been taken in the act of violating another daughter of the same lady, aged about 12. It was the mother who had surprised the officer violating her daughter. The mother made a complaint to the superior officers of the Germans and the officer who had committed the act was condemned to be shot. He was led out for this purpose in the manner I have described above. The woman then came on the scene, and the officer in charge of the platoon asked her if she would pardon the other officer. She did not wish to see him killed and said she pardoned him. He was then released. The officer was dressed in grey and had a helmet on with a spike on the top of it. He belonged to the 32nd Regiment of the Line. I know this to be so because I saw the number on the linen covering which he wore over his helmet. The other soldiers on the square belonged to the same regiment.
 
a 32 Hermalle
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    I live at Pepinster. I have not served so far in the Belgian army, but I have now volunteered and leave tomorrow to join.
    A large German army was passing through Pepinster on their way to Liège and they took as hostages five citizens. The burgomaster was not one of them, as he had obtained a substitute, but the burgomaster employed us to carry the baggage of all the hostages. We therefore marched with this German army and the hostages. We went as far as Cornesse and there we spent the night camping in a large field. The next day an officer told us that a German soldier had been shot in the leg and that he had made a declaration that he had been shot by the civilian inhabitants of Pepinster. The five hostages and my companion and I were then placed against a hedge and we were told that unless we could find the inhabitant who had shot the German soldier we should be shot ourselves. One of the hostages then said that the German soldier had not been shot in Pepinster, but in Cornesse. It appeared that the Germans did not know that there were two towns, Pepinster and Cornesse ; the two towns are joined together and would appear to be the same place, but they have different burgomasters. When the Germans heard this explanation they took us and the hostages with them and went to find the burgomaster of Cornesse. They found him and placed him against a wall in the courtyard of the school and four or five German soldiers shot him. He was only hit in the legs and a German officer came up and shot him through the heart with his revolver. He was an old man and quite deaf. I do not know what his name was. I never heard whether it was true that the German soldier had been shot by an inhabitant of Cornesse ; some said it was true and some said it was not; some people even said the soldier had shot himself so as not to be obliged to fight any more.
After the burgomaster had been shot we were taken back by the Germans to Pepinster and then released.
    About the beginning of October I bicycled from Pepinster to Louvenier.* near Spa, which is about a quarter of an hour from Pepinster. I did not know the Germans were anywhere near and I went to amuse myself. I went into a café at Louvenier because I heard firing. They told me there that the Germans were bombarding the town because the inhabitants had fired on them. I then asked whether I could get away by another road without being taken by the Germans. They showed me a little path, which I went along. It brought me to a farmhouse about 7 o'clock in the evening. The farmhouse was about 10 minutes walk from the café. When I got to the farmhouse I saw the Germans coming to the farm from the main road. I think there were about 100 of them. I went into the farm kitchen and found there the farmer, his wife and child, two men, and a servant girl.
    The Germans then began to enter the farmhouse. There were only three of them. The Germans knocked at the door of the kitchen and the farmer, the two men, the girl, and myself all rushed out of the kitchen into another room and hid ourselves there in the dark. The farmer's wife, who had a baby in her arms which she was suckling, was not quick enough to get away and she did not escape with us into the room. In order to get to the room next the kitchen we had to go outside the house and come round by another way. This brought us to a sort of dairy where they made the butter. This dairy had no door into the kitchen, but there was a small window in the wall of the dairy which looked right in the kitchen. It was a square window, about 2 feet 6 inches square. It was a considerable height from the floor, over 5 feet. Underneath the window was a bench on which the jars for the milk were placed. The glass in the window was quite transparent. When we got to the dairy the farmer told us we could see everything that happened through this window. We took the bench away from underneath the window and stood it about 1 metre or more away from the window, so that we should not be seen from the kitchen. We all got up on this bench and I stood next to the farmer himself. The kitchen was quite bright being lit with electric light which is installed all over Louvenier: As I looked into the kitchen I saw the Germans seize the baby out of the arms of the farmer's wife. There were three German soldiers, one officer and two privates. The two privates held the baby and the officer took out his sword and cut the baby's head off. The head fell on the floor and the soldiers kicked the body of the child into a corner and kicked the head after it. When the farmer, who was with us in the dairy, saw this he wanted to shout out and go nearer the window. The two men and I prevented him from doing this as we said we should lose our own lives. One of the men put a cloth in the farmer's mouth so that the noise of his weeping should not be heard. It takes practically no time to get from the kitchen to the dairy by the way we went. We ran round. You could not hear anything that was said in the kitchen. We could see that the wife was crying, but we could not hear her.
    After the baby had been killed we saw the officer say something to the farmer's wife and saw her push him away. After five or six minutes the two soldiers seized the woman and put her on the ground. She resisted them and they then pulled all her clothes off her until she was quite naked. The officer then violated her while one soldier held her by the shoulders and the other by the arms. After the officer each soldier in turn violated her, the other soldier and the officer holding her down. The farmer did not see his wife violated : the two men-servants had pulled him down from the bench after the baby had been killed, and they would not let him get up again. After the woman had been violated by the three the officer cut off the woman's breasts. I then saw him take out his revolver and point it at the woman on the ground. At this moment the farmer broke away from the two men-servants, jumped on to a chair and put his foot through the window. The two men-servants and I and the servant girl ran away as soon as the farmer had broken the window and we know nothing more. We ran into the fields and from there saw the farmhouse had been set on fire.
    I never learnt the name of the farmer. I came back to Louvenier later, but the town had been bombarded and burnt and there was nobody there to speak to. I have never seen the domestics and the girl again and I have never been to the farm again. I do not know the regiment to which these soldiers belong. They were cavalry because they had spurs on. I escaped eventually to Holland with my companion C . . . and so came to England.


*Lonveigne (?).
 
a 33
Pepinster, &c.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

    I live at Pepinster. I have not served in the Belgian Army. I have tried to be taken as a volunteer, but they would not take me, as there is something wrong with one of my ribs.
    I know the last witness well. I have heard the statement he has made with reference to the shooting of the Burgomaster of Cornesse. I was with him on the occasion he refers to and saw and heard all that he did. I confirm his story in every respect. I was not with him when he saw the other incidents he refers to.
    About the beginning of September I was handing in a revolver and gun to the Germans at the railway station at Pepinster. We had all been ordered to do this. A cigar merchant came while I was there and handed in a gun. The gun was a sporting gun and it was loaded in both barrels. When the Germans found this out they took the cigar merchant and shot him immediately and buried him quite close to the place where he had been shot. I saw this myself but said nothing. I did not dare say anything and I went away as soon as I could.

 
a 34
ENAMELLER (British subject).

    About the end of August I was in the village of Hermee, which is about an hour's walk from Herstal, which is about an hour from Liège. Practically the whole of the village of Hermee was wrecked, about 142 houses being totally destroyed, which left not more than two or three standing. I saw, myself, in this village the bodies of two dead Belgian civilians. I did not actually see other bodies, or the bodies of women and children, but it was well known to myself and other inhabitants that many others had been killed. The excuse given for burning down these houses was that someone in that village, or in some other village near by, had fired upon the German soldiers. Towards the end of August a woman brought a child to the factory where I was working, which had been turned into a hospital. I saw the child myself and he had been severely wounded with some sharp instrument which was said to be a bayonet. He had been cut right up the stomach. The woman who brought the child was not the mother. She had picked up the child at a village named Heure le Remain and she told me that the mother of this child had been killed by the German soldiers while the baby was in her arms and at the same time her father-in-law and her husband had been killed. The child was 5½  months old. I know this because I myself saw the death certificate. The woman who brought the boy to the hospital used to bring him every morning for treatment, and the German soldiers who were there used to keep her waiting at least half an hour before they would let her take the child to the doctor. This happened every morning. I myself protested against this treatment and told them that it was their fellow-soldiers who had themselves killed the baby's father and mother and injured the child. The baby died about 10 days after it was first brought to the hospital. I drew out the rough copy of the death certificate for the doctor to sign.
 
a 35 Hermee, &c.
BELGIAN REFUGEE.

     I was employed at the Red Cross Ambulance Station at the Fabrique Nationale at Herstal. I drove the motor ambulance in connection with this station. I myself went and picked up the little boy of about 4 months old and his grandmother, referred to by the last witness, and I confirm what he says with reference to the wounds of these two persons. I found these people in a house at Heure le Remain, and they were carried by me in the motor ambulance from Heure le Romain to Herstal. I understood from statements made by the grandmother to officials of the hospital that the child and she had been wounded, and the parents of the child killed while sitting in a house.
 
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