The 1939 - 1945 Star The Atlantic Star The Air Crew Europe Star The Africa Star COMMITTEE ON THE GRANT OF  HONOURS DECORATIONS AND MEDALS IN TIME OF WAR The Pacific Star The Burma Star The Italy Star The France and Germany Star The Defence Medal
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Below is the official published statement on the WW2 stars and the Defence medal as presented May 1945. As this was published prior to the surrender of Japan it is obviously not the final word on the subject. Still interesting though - and the only major changes made were extensions of the dates for some of the medals to include the period between the surrender of Germany and the surrender of Japan - and the reduction of proposed bars for the Africa Star from five? to three (see table [15], below)

 

COMMITTEE ON THE GRANT OF
HONOURS DECORATIONS AND MEDALS
IN TIME OF WAR

CAMPAIGN STARS

AND

THE DEFENCE MEDAL

THE 1939-45 STAR, THE AFRICA STAR, THE ATLANTIC STAR,
THE AIR CREW EUROPE STAR, THE ITALY STAR,
THE FRANCE AND GERMANY STAR,
THE PACIFIC STAR, THE BURMA STAR,
AND THE CLASPS TO THESE STARS.
THE DEFENCE MEDAL.
CHEVRONS FOR WAR SERVICE.

Presented by the Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and
Minister of Defence, to Parliament
by Command of His Majesty
May
1945

LONDON

HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

THREEPENCE NET

 

CAMPAIGN STARS AND THE DEFENCE MEDAL

The 1939-45 Star, the Africa Star, the Atlantic Star, the Air Crew Europe Star, the Italy Star, the France and Germany Star, the Pacific Star, the Burma Star, and the Clasps to these Stars. The Defence Medal. Chevrons for war service.

1. (i) The Committee on the grant of Honours, Decorations and Medals in time of war have had under consideration directions by the Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister of Defence relating to recommendations for the institution of further Campaign Stars and a Defence Medal for service in the war, and for varying the qualifications for the award of the Stars instituted in 1943.

(ii) Recommendations for the institution of the changes and extensions set out below have been the special subject of His Majesty's attention over a long period during which The King has been advised by the Prime Minister on all matters likely to give rise to difference of opinion. The recommendations have now been duly submitted to The King, and His Majesty has graciously approved them. Consideration of the manufacture and issue of the new Stars themselves and the Defence Medal will be postponed. The ribbons, which have been devised by His Majesty, are being made now on the highest priority, and will be issued as soon as supplies are ready.

(iii) The following paragraphs should be read in conjunction with paragraph 11 which indicates the operational service required before individuals can qualify or begin to qualify for one of the new Stars and the manner in which service is to be reckoned. A principle of this scheme is that there should be complete equality of treatment as between the Services with regard to the maximum number of Stars, and Clasps in lieu of Stars, which may be earned by any individual.

The 1939-45 Star

2. (i) Approval has been granted for the prolongation of the currency of the 1939-43 Star to the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe. The question of the possible prolongation of the currency of the 1939-45 Star to the end of active hostilities in the Pacific will be a matter for consideration. Meanwhile the temporary use for this distinction of the description 1939-45 Star has been authorised. The requirement that the Africa Star and this Star should not be awarded to the same individual is withdrawn. Those who have already earned the Africa Star qualify for the 1939-45 Star in addition after completing the required period of six months operational service or two months air crew operational service, as the case may be, in that, or any other, operational theatre. The conditions of award will otherwise remain as at present except for the changes referred to in the following paragraphs.

(ii) Those who have already been awarded the 1939-45 Star for service of less than six months in operations in areas and within dates covered by the new Stars, e.g., in Sicily or Malaya, will be required to complete an aggregate of six or two months operational service in any theatre or theatres before becoming eligible for any further Star. Similarly, those who have not already earned the 1939-45 Star would be required to qualify for it by six or two months operational service respectively before becoming eligible for one of the new Stars. (See also paragraph 11 (ii).)

(iii) Special grants of the 1939-45 Star may be made. Selection will be guided by the principle of responsibility for operational decisions. Senior Officers such as the Chiefs of Staff, Commanders-in-Chief, and commanders thus qualified may be awarded the Star. This system will apply only to the 1939-45 Star.

Clasp to the 1939-45 Star

3. A Clasp to the 1939-45 Star has been instituted for air crew of fighter aircraft engaged in the Battle of Britain between the 1st July and the 31st October, 1940, and the award of this is to be denoted by a gilt rose Emblem when the ribbon alone is worn.

The Africa Star

4. This, as stated above, will now be granted in addition to the 1939-45 Star, to those who have qualified for both Stars. For the award of the Africa Star it is not imperative that the 1939-45 Star should already have been earned. Naval and Merchant Navy service anywhere at sea in the Mediterranean between the 10th June, 1940, and the 12th May, 1943, will now qualify for the Africa Star. The Clasp and silver rose Emblem for North Africa previously awarded with the 1939-43 Star in the Navy and the Air Force and the Merchant Navy for specified service in the African campaign after the 23rd October, 1942, will now be transferred to the Africa Star.

The Atlantic Star

5. (i) The institution of a new Atlantic Star has been approved. This is intended to commemorate the Battle of the Atlantic and is designed primarily for Convoys and their Escorts and Anti-Submarine forces, as well as for fast Merchant ships that sailed alone. The Atlantic Star is to be granted for six months service afloat, in the Navy, in the Atlantic and Home waters, since the 3rd September, 1939, and until the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe and the Atlantic.

(ii) The ribbon is blue, white and sea green, shaded and watered, the design being intended as a symbol of service in the Atlantic. The ribbon is to be worn with the blue edge furthest from the left shoulder.

(iii) The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can begin to qualify for the Atlantic Star.

(iv) Service with Convoys to North Russia and service in the South Atlantic west of longitude 20 E. will be included. Naval service from the 6th June, 1944, to 8th May, 1945, within the defined qualifying sea area for the France and Germany Star will not be counted towards the qualifying period for the Atlantic Star. The Merchant Navy will be awarded the Atlantic Star under the same conditions as the Navy except that six months service anywhere at sea will qualify, provided that one or more voyages have been made in the defined area. Service in fishing vessels working on or near the coast and in certain coastal craft is excluded as this will be recognised by the award of the 1939-45 Star.

(v) Air Crew of the Royal Air Force will be eligible if they have taken part in operations against the enemy at sea within the areas and between the dates qualifying Naval personnel for the Atlantic Star, subject to the completion of two months service in an operational unit. Army and Air Force personnel serving in His Majesty's ships or in defensively equipped Merchant ships will qualify under rules similar to those for the Navy or Merchant Navy.

(vi) Service for the Atlantic Star brought to an end by death, wounds or other disability due to service, or marked by an award or mention in despatches, will qualify although it may not have amounted to six or two months as the case may be.

(vii) A candidate who qualifies for the Atlantic Star, the France and Germany Star and the Air Crew Europe Star mentioned below, or two of these, will be awarded only the Star first earned. A Clasp will be awarded with it denoting that the service which would have qualified for the second Star earned has been rendered. A silver rose Emblem will be worn to denote the award of the France and Germany, Atlantic or Air Crew Europe Clasp as the case may be.

The Air Crew Europe Star

6. (i) The institution of an Air Crew Europe Star has been approved. This is intended as an award for operational flying from United Kingdom bases over Europe (including the United Kingdom) since the 3rd September, 1939, and up to the 5th June, 1944. The time qualification will be two months service in air crew so employed. Air crew service in operations at sea will not be a qualification for the Air Crew Europe Star.

(ii) The ribbon is light blue with black edges, and there is in addition a narrow yellow stripe on either side. The design is symbolic of the continuous service of the Air Forces by night and day.

(iii) The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can begin to qualify for the Air Crew Europe Star.

(iv) Service for the Air Crew Europe Star brought to an end by death, wounds or other disability due to service, or marked by an award or mention in despatches, will qualify although it may not have amounted to two months.

(v) A candidate who qualifies for the Air Crew Europe Star, the Atlantic Star and the France and Germany Star mentioned below, or two of these, will be awarded only the Star first earned. A Clasp will be awarded with it denoting that the service which would have qualified for the second Star earned has been rendered. A silver rose Emblem will be worn to denote the award of the Atlantic, France and Germany, or Air Crew Europe Clasp as the case may be.

The Italy Star

7. (i) The institution of an Italy Star has been approved for entry into operational service on land in Sicily or in Italy at any time during the campaign there from the capture of Pantellaria on the 11th June, 1943, and until the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe.

(ii) The ribbon is in the Italian colours, green, white and red. There are five vertical stripes of equal width, one in red at either edge and one in green at the centre, the two intervening stripes being in white.

(iii) The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can qualify for the Italy Star

(iv) Operational service in the Mediterranean theatre, for instance in the Aegean and Dodecanese, Corsica, Greece, Sardinia and Yugoslavia after the 11th June, 1943, will be a qualification. Operational service in Elba will be a qualification. Service in Sicily after the 17th August, 1943, in Sardinia after the 19th September, 1943, and Corsica after the 4th October, 1943, will not be a qualification.

(v) Naval or Merchant Navy service at sea in the Mediterranean during this period will be a qualification provided it was directly connected with active operations in the Mediterranean theatre, including those in the Aegean and the South of France.

(vi) Air crew service in operations against the enemy, within the Mediterranean theatre, will be a qualification, including sorties from the Mediterranean area over Europe.

(vii) For Naval personnel on duty ashore and non-air crew personnel of the Air Force, entry into the prescribed areas of land operations will be a qualification.

(viii) The Star will be awarded to those who have earned it whatever other Campaign Stars may be granted in addition for services in the present war.

The France and Germany Star

8. (i) This Star has been instituted for entry into operational service on land from the 6th June, 1944, in France, Belgium, Holland or Germany, until the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe.

(ii) The ribbon is in the red, white and blue of the Union Flag, and these colours are also used as a symbol of France and the Netherlands. There are five vertical stripes of equal width, one in blue at either edge and one in red at the centre, the two intervening stripes being in white.

(iii) The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can qualify for the France and Germany Star.

(iv) Naval and Merchant Navy service afloat in the North Sea south of a line from the Firth of Forth to Kristiansand (South), in the English Channel or the Bay of Biscay east of longitude 6 W. will be a qualification, provided such service was directly in support of land operations in France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, &c.

(v) Naval and Merchant Navy service afloat in the Mediterranean in support of operations in the South of France will not be a qualification. Such service will qualify for the Italy Star.

(vi) Air crew service in operations against the enemy over Europe from the 6th June, 1944, to the 8th May, 1945, will qualify. Air crew service qualifying for the Atlantic Star will not qualify for this Star. Sorties from the Mediterranean area over Europe will not be a qualification as such service will be a qualification for the Italy Star.

(vii) For Naval personnel on duty ashore and non-air crew personnel of the Air Force, entry into the prescribed areas of land operations will be a qualification.

(viii) The Star will not be awarded in addition to the Atlantic Star or the Air Crew Europe Star. If a candidate should qualify for these three Stars or two of them, the Star first earned will be awarded. If the France and Germany Star is awarded under these conditions a Clasp will be awarded for service which would qualify for the Atlantic Star. A silver rose Emblem will be worn to denote the award of this Clasp.

The Pacific Star

9. (i) A Pacific Star has been instituted for entry into operational service in the Pacific theatre from the 8th December, 1941, until further notice

(ii) The ribbon is dark green with red edges and with a central yellow stripe. There are also two other narrow stripes, one dark blue and the other light blue. The green and yellow stand for the forests and the beaches of the Pacific, the red edges for the Armies, the dark blue stripe for the Naval Forces and the Merchant Navies, and the light blue stripe for the Air Forces. The ribbon is to be worn with the dark blue stripe furthest from the left shoulder.

(iii) The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can qualify for the Pacific Star.

(iv) Naval and Merchant Navy service in the Pacific Ocean, including the South China Sea, and the Indian Ocean east of a line running due south from Singapore round the south-east coast of Sumatra, through Christmas Island, and southwards along the Meridian of 110 E., will be a qualification.. Qualifying service on land will be restricted to operational service in territories in which there have been enemy or Allied invasions, i.e., Hong Kong, the 8th December, 1941, to the 25th December, 1941; Malaya, the 8th December, 1941, to the 15th February, 1942; Nauru, the 8th December, 1941, to the 1st March, 1942; Ocean Island, the 8th December, 1941, to the 26th August, 1942; Gilbert and Ellice Islands, the 10th December, 1941, until a future date to be notified; Borneo and Sarawak, the 17th December, 1941, to the 31st January, 1942 ; Celebes, the 10th January, 1942, to the 26th February, 1942; Bismarck Archipelago, the 22nd January, 1942, to the 24th January, 1942, and the 15th December, 1943, until a future date to be notified; Molucca Islands, the 30th January, 1942, to the 26th February, 1942; Solomon Islands (British Solomon Islands Protectorate and Australian Mandated Territory), the 1st February, 1942, until a future date to be notified; Sumatra, the 14th February, 1942, to the 23rd March, 1942; Timor, the 20th February, 1942, to the 31st March, 1942; Java, the 27th February, 1942, to the 9th March, 1942 ; New Guinea, the 7th March, 1942, until a future date to be notified. Service in Burma is excluded.

(v) The following islands may be mentioned as among those, service in which will not qualify for the Star in any respect : Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Fiji Islands, Tonga Islands, Phoenix Islands, Fanning Island.

(vi) Air crew service in operations against the enemy will qualify.

(vii) For Naval personnel on duty ashore and non-air crew personnel of the Air Force, entry into the prescribed area of land operations will be a qualification.

(viii) A candidate who qualifies for both the Pacific and the Burma Star mentioned below will be awarded only one of these, the Star first earned. A Clasp will be awarded with it denoting that service which would have qualified for the other Star has been rendered. A silver rose Emblem will be worn to denote the award of the Burma or Pacific Clasp as the case may be.

The Burma Star

10. (i) A Burma Star has been instituted for entry into operational service in the Burma campaign from the 11th December, 1941, until further notice.

(ii) The ribbon is dark blue with a central red stripe, and in addition two orange stripes. The red stands for the British Commonwealth Forces, and the orange for the sun, and these are placed on a contrasting background of dark blue.

(iii) The 1939-45 Star must be earned by six, or for air crew, two, months service in operations before a candidate can qualify for the Burma Star.

(iv) The qualifying area for land operations will be service in Burma. In addition service on land from the 1st May, 1942, to the 31st December, 1943, in the provinces of Bengal and Assam and from the 1st January, 1944, until further notice, in those parts of Bengal or Assam east of the Brahmaputra, will qualify. Service in Malaya and Sumatra subsequent to the 1st November, 1943, will be a qualification for the Burma rather than the Pacific Star.

(v) Naval and Merchant Navy service will be restricted to service in the Bay of Bengal enclosed by a line running from the southernmost point of Ceylon for a distance of 300 miles south, thence to a point 300 miles west of the southernmost point of Sumatra, and continuing east to the western side of Sunda Strait. The Malacca Strait is included.

(vi) Air crew service in operations against the enemy will qualify.

(vii) For Naval personnel ashore and non-air crew personnel of the Air Force, entry into the prescribed area of land operations will be a qualification.

(viii) A candidate who qualifies for both the Burma Star and the Pacific Star mentioned above will be awarded only one of these, the Star first earned. A Clasp will be awarded with it denoting that service which would have qualified for the other Star has been rendered. A silver rose Emblem will be worn to denote the award of the Pacific or Burma Clasp as the case may be.

Campaign Stars and Clasps. General

11. (i) Entry into operational service

(a) Service in ships making occasional visits to the defined areas for fuelling and so forth will not necessarily be a qualification.

(b) The expression " entry into operational service " in the case of the new Stars is subject to the qualification that six or two months operational service must already have been rendered. Qualifying service for any one of the new Stars may not run concurrently with service qualifying for, and preceding the date on which a candidate qualifies for the award of the 1939-45 Star.

(ii) Previous operational service of less than six or two months

(a) A recipient of the 1939-45 Star who has qualified for it by less than six or two months service respectively must complete the period of six or two months, as the case may be, before he can qualify or, in the case of the Atlantic or Air Crew Europe Stars, begin to qualify for one of the new Stars.

(b) Those to whom grants of the 1939-45 Star have been, or will be made, as a result of the participation in a campaign on the special list, service in which qualifies in itself for the award (House of Commons Official Report, the 22nd March, 1944, column 881), will not qualify, or begin to qualify, for one of the new Stars until the completion of six or two months operational service, as the case may be.

(c) Operational service for a lesser period than six or two months respectively, but brought to an end by death, wounds or other disability due to service, or alternatively the grant for service in operations of an Honour, Decoration, Mention in Despatches, Commendation for brave conduct or Commendation for valuable service in the air, would in the armed Forces or the Merchant Navy, be a qualification for the award of the new Star appropriate to the theatre, without regard to any six or two months service requirement, but subject to the general restrictions relating to alternative awards of the Stars.

(d) Awards made under the conditions described in sub-paragraph (c) above will be additional to any award of the 1939-45 Star.

(iii) Exclusion of time spent as prisoner of war

(a) Although time spent as a prisoner of war in consequence of capture in operations may be counted towards the qualifying period for the 1939-45 Star, such time will not be counted towards the period of six or two months operational service which must be completed before the grant of one of the new Stars may be authorised.

(b) An individual who, at the time of his capture, has completed the six or two months operational service required for the award of the 1939-45 Star may, however, count time spent as a prisoner of war towards the period of six or two months service required for the award of the Atlantic Star or the Air Crew Europe Star. The candidate must have begun to earn one of these Stars and, in the case of the Merchant Navy, one or more voyages must have been made in the " defined area " after completion of service required for the award of the 1939-45 Star.

(iv) Award of a second or further new Star

(a) Service qualifying for one of the new Stars cannot run concurrently with service qualifying for another of the new Stars.

(b) An individual, however, who has once completed the six or two months operational service required for the award of the 1939-45 Star and has been awarded one of the new Stars will not be required to complete this period of qualifying service a second time in order to qualify, or in the case of the Atlantic Star and Air Crew Europe Star in order to begin to qualify, for a further new Star.

(v) Award of Clasps

No individual will be awarded more than one Clasp to any one of the Stars.

(vi) Civil Air Transport

Consideration will be given to the production of a scheme for the award of the new Stars in certain conditions, for those civilian crews who have flown into or through theatres of war or over dangerous waters. Air crew of Royal Air Force Transport Command engaged in similar duties will also be considered.

(vii) The last six months

In the case of persons in operational service on the 8th May, 1945, that is to say, at the end of active hostilities in Europe, the Italy and France and Germany Stars will be granted by virtue of entry into a theatre of operations, and the prior six or two months service requirement will not apply. A similar waiving of the prior service requirement will extend to the Atlantic and Air Crew Europe Stars. The actual service requirement for the Atlantic Star will also be reduced to entry into operational service, and a similar provision will apply to air crew in relation to the Air Crew Europe Star. The 1939-45 Star will not be awarded in any of these cases in which operational service amounts to less than six or two months respectively.

The Defence Medal

12. (i) The institution of a Defence Medal has been approved. This is to be granted (a) for service with Forces in non-operational areas subjected to air attack, or closely threatened, (b) for non-operational service with the Forces overseas from, or outside, the country of residence, (c) for Civil Defence or other specified civilian service in military operational areas, and (d) for Civil Defence service in non-operational areas subjected to air attack, or closely threatened.

 The time qualification will be three years for (a), (c) and (d) except for Mine and Bomb Disposal units of the Forces in (a), for which the period will be three months. For (b) the time qualification will be one year.

(ii) The centre of the ribbon is flame-coloured, and the edges are green, symbols of the enemy attacks on our green and pleasant land. Two black stripes represent the black-out.

(iii) Those qualified for any one of the Campaign Stars may be granted this award in addition, and subsequent award of one of the Campaign Stars will not supersede a previous grant of the Defence Medal. Military or Civil Defence service in the territory of residence, neither subjected to air attack nor closely threatened will not be a qualification for this Medal.

(iv) Service in the Forces

(a) All members of the Forces who have served in the United Kingdom during the war will be eligible for the Defence Medal. Personnel of the Anti-Aircraft Command and all Royal Air Force personnel other than operational air crew will, for example, be included. Members of Dominion Forces who have served in the United Kingdom will be eligible The United Kingdom Home Guard will also be included.

(b) It is the intention, for example, that service by United Kingdom Forces in West Africa, Palestine or India, as well as service by Dominion Forces in non-operational areas outside their own countries, should also be a qualification.

(c) The part-time service of the Malta Home Guard will be specially recognised by the grant of the Defence Medal.

(v) Civil Defence, &c., service

(a) Members of civilian services in the United Kingdom eligible for Chevrons for war service will be eligible for the Defence Medal. A list of most of the categories which will be included is given in the Appendix.

(b) Part time, as well as whole time, civilian service of the kind described in sub-paragraph (a) above will be a qualification. Any period since the 3rd September, 1939, during which the enrolled member was

(i) available for duty up to the standard required from time to time, and

(ii) performed such duty as and when required, will be reckoned towards the period of three years qualifying service.

(c) It is the intention that Civil Defence service in military operational areas subjected to enemy air attack should be included on a similar basis. Civil Defence services in Gibraltar and Malta and in other territories in the Colonial Empire, which qualify for Chevrons for war service, will also be eligible. Civil Defence service in, for instance, West Africa or the West Indies will not be a qualification.

(vi) Time qualification

Service will be counted from the 3rd September, 1939, to the 8th May, 1945, or to the stand-down of the organisation if earlier. United Kingdom Home Guard service, for instance, will be reckoned from June, 1940, to the

stand-down in November, 1944, and Civil Defence service will be counted up to the 8th May, 1945, or whatever date is fixed for the cessation of service in particular cases. Service in the various eligible categories may be aggregated. Time overseas in non-operational areas amounting to less than a year will be added at its actual time value to service of less than three years at home, that is to say, it would not be multiplied by three.

(vii) Time qualification in the Colonial Empire

Where in certain cases in the Colonial Empire in territories which have been subjected to aerial bombardment or closely threatened, a three-year qualification cannot be adopted without excluding the full or part-time local military Forces and the Civil Defence organisation, it will he necessary to seek approval for special time qualifications.

(viii) Special awards

(a) Service in eligible categories brought to an end before the period of three years or twelve or three months service has been completed, either by death due to enemy action when on duty, or by injuries entitling the candidate to a Wound Stripe, will be a qualification for the grant of the Defence Medal.

(b) The Defence Medal will also be granted, without regard to the three year or twelve or three months service requirement, to those British subjects who may have received an award or Commendation for brave conduct or Commendation for valuable service in the air, provided that the recipient, when the award or Commendation was earned, was serving in a category eligible for the Defence Medal and that the distinction was granted in respect of service qualifying for the Defence Medal.

(c) It will be noticed that, for obvious reasons, the above definition excludes those granted the George Cross or George Medal for actions in service qualifying for Campaign Stars or for actions in territories neither subjected to air attack nor closely threatened.

(d) There are a few other recipients of the George Cross or the George Medal not in any of the categories mentioned in the preceding subparagraphs (b) and (c), mainly those granted these awards for gallantry in Civil Defence, who were not in a service which would qualify them for the Defence Medal. These also will be eligible specially for the Defence Medal. This arrangement will not apply to holders of awards other than the George Cross and the George Medal.

(ix) Claims

It will not be practicable for Departments to certify awards until application has been made and the prescribed form has been submitted and examined. Further information will be issued on this point by the various Departments. A candidate with qualifying time in more than one Service will submit a certificate from the appropriate authorities in respect of his earlier service.

(x) Closing date. Continuance in the Pacific

(a) The closing date of the qualifying period for the Defence Medal in respect of service in the Forces will be that on which active hostilities ended in Europe, that is to say, the 8th May, 1945, except that service in the Forces overseas from, or outside, the country of residence, will continue to be reckoned until the end of active hostilities in the Pacific.

(b) Service by local military Forces or Civil Defence Organisations in non-operational areas in territories in the Pacific area classified as qualifying by reason of aerial bombardment or because they have been closely threatened will continue to be reckoned towards the award of the Defence Medal during the interval between the end of active hostilities in Europe and the end of active hostilities in the Pacific.

Interpretation

13. Any questions of difficulty in connection with the scheme, including interpretation and so forth, will be a matter for reference to the Committee on the grant of Honours, Decorations and Medals in time of war and in relation to the Stars the practice adopted for the 1939-45 and Africa Stars will be followed as far as may be possible.

The Dominions, India, Southern Rhodesia, Burma and the Colonial Empire

14. The above arrangements in relation to Campaign Stars and Clasps will also apply to the Forces and Merchant Navies of India, Southern Rhodesia, Burma and the Colonial Empire. The Defence Medal will also be granted in these Forces for services of the kind described in paragraph 12 above. The arrangements have been generally agreed in discussion with Dominion Governments, though certain questions of detail remain to be settled. It is the intention that Civil Defence services in areas in the British Commonwealth, in addition to the United Kingdom, subjected to air attack or closely threatened, should also be considered for recognition by the grant of the Defence Medal.


 

Analysis


15. (i) The main features of the scheme may be set out in tabular form as follows, the awards being shown in the order in which they will be worn:
 
 
  Earliest date of commencement of qualifying service. Latest date of qualifying service. Alternative to Time qualification. Clasps. Emblems.
1939-45 Star

3rd Sept.,1939

8th May, 1945* ... 6 months operational service, or on land any operational service in specified campaigns. Air crew, 2 months Air crew of fighters in Battle of Britain, 1st July to 31st Oct., 1940 Gilt Rose.
Atlantic Star 3rd Sept.,1939 8th May, 1945 France and Germany and Air
Crew Europe Stars
6 months operational service. Air crew, 2 months France and Germany or Air Crew Europe Silver Rose.

Air Crew Europe Star

3rd Sept.,1939 5th June, 1944 France and Germany and Atlantic Stars 2 months operational France and Germany or Atlantic Silver Rose.

Africa Star

10th June, 1940 12th May, 1943 ... Entry into operational area 8th Army,
23rd Oct., 1942
to 12th May,
1943
Silver "8"

 

1st Army,
8th Nov., 1942
to 12th May,
1943
Silver "1"

 

R.A.F., 23rd Oct.,
1942 to 12th
May, 1943
Silver Rose.
R.N. Inshore
Squadrons and
M.N. vessels
which worked
inshore 23rd
Oct., 1942 to
12th May, 1943
Silver Rose.
18th Army
Group H.Q
.,
15th Feb., 1943
to 12th May,
1943
Silver Rose.

 

Pacific Star

8th Dec., 1941 Continuing Burma Star Entry into operational area Burma ... ... Silver Rose.

Burma Star

11th Dec. 1941 Continuing

Pacific Star

Entry into operational area Pacific ... ...

Silver Rose.

Italy Star 11th June, 1943 8th May, 1945 ... Entry into operational area ... ...
France and Germany Star 6th June, 1944 8th May, 1945 Atlantic and Air Crew Europe Stars Entry into operational area Atlantic ...

Silver Rose.

Defence Medal 3rd Sept., 1939 Continuing ... 3 years, 1 year or 3 months ... ...
 
             
*   Prolongation of currency to the end of active hostilities in the Pacific is under consideration.
   Usually 3rd March, 1940.
   Usually 3rd March, 1940.
 

(ii) The scheme would permit one individual to wear five of the eight Campaign Star ribbons, and the Defence Medal ribbon, as follows :
 
 

Star

Navy or Merchant Navy ... 1939-45.
Atlantic (or France and Germany, or Air Crew Europe).
Africa.
Pacific (or Burma).
Italy.
Defence Medal.
 
Army ... 1939-45.
Africa.
Pacific (or Burma).
Italy.
France and Germany (or Atlantic or Air Crew Europe).
Defence Medal.
 
Air Force ... 1939-45.
Air Crew Europe (or Atlantic or France and Germany).
Africa.
Pacific (or Burma).
Italy.
Defence Medal.
 

No individual will be awarded more than one Clasp to any one Campaign Star, and no one will be able to wear more than one Emblem on any one of the Star ribbons, when the ribbon only is worn.
 

 

Chevrons for War Service

16. Following are the arrangements relating to the continuance of the service qualification for Chevrons for war service. In the Navy, Army, Air Force and Merchant Navy, anywhere, full time service after the 8th May, 1945, the date of the end of active hostilities in Europe and up to the end of active hostilities in the Pacific will continue to be a qualification for Chevrons. In Civil Defence services Chevrons will no longer be earned after the 8th May, 1945, except in the Pacific area. There, such service in territories subjected to aerial bombardment or closely threatened will continue to qualify for Chevrons. Part-time military service in the Pacific, but not elsewhere, will continue to be reckoned towards the award of Chevrons until the end of active hostilities in the Pacific area. In some instances, part-time service in the Forces or Civil Defence service will cease to qualify before the 8th May, 1945. This has been the case in, for instance, the United Kingdom Home Guard.

 


 

APPENDIX

The following civilian services in the United Kingdom eligible for Chevrons for war service are among the categories eligible for the Defence Medal :
 
(a) Civil Defence services established by a Government Department or Local Authority: -
  Wardens Service (including Shelter Wardens).
Rescue Service (including former First-Aid Party Service). Decontamination Service.
Report and Control Service.
Messenger Service.
Ambulance Service (including Sitting Case Cars).
First-Aid Service (including First-Aid Posts and Points, Public Cleansing Centres, Mobile Cleansing Units and the Nursing Service for public air-raid shelters).
(b) Local Authority Civil Defence Services: -
  Rest Centre Service.
Emergency Food Service (including Queen's Messenger Convoy Service).
Canteen Service.
Emergency Information Service.
Mortuary Service.
(c) National Fire Service (including service in a local authority Fire Brigade or the Auxiliary Fire Service prior to nationalisation).
(d) Police, Royal Marine Police Special Reserve, Admiralty Civil Police, War Department Constabulary, Air Ministry Constabulary, Railway and Dock Police.
(e) American Ambulance, Great Britain.
(f) Civil Air Transport.
(g) Civil Defence Reserve, Kent County Civil Defence Mobile Reserve and West Sussex County Civil Defence Mobile Reserve.
(h) Civil Nursing Reserve.
(i) Civilian Technical Corps.
(j) Coast Guard.
(k) Fire Guards performing duties under the local authorities, or at Government or business premises.
(l) Lighthouse keepers serving under the three Lighthouse authorities, and keepers of Light-Vessels under those authorities, who do not qualify for the 1939-45 Star.
(m) Nurses in hospitals for which Government Departments or local authorities are responsible, or in the recognised Voluntary hospitals.
(n) Port of London Authority River Emergency Service. Clyde River Patrol.
(o) Royal Observer Corps.
(p) Women's Voluntary Services for Civil Defence. (Members of the W.V.S. may qualify if (a) they are enrolled in an eligible local authority Civil Defence Service, (b) they perform duties analogous to those of one of the eligible local authority Civil Defence Services and the section of the W.V.S. to which they belong is one which functions operationally during or immediately after enemy attacks.)

 

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1945
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